Tag Archives: Rainforest Alliance

The biggest crisis is also the greatest opportunity

The biggest crisis is also the greatest opportunity

By Nigel Sizer and Andre de Freitas

Published in GreenBiz

The Paris Climate Agreement went into force last month, less than a year after 190 governments signed the landmark, legally binding international treaty. Two weeks ago, world leaders and civil society groups gathered at the COP22 climate conference in Marrakech, Morocco, to tackle the next phase — implementation — beginning with the development of concrete climate action plans.

Agriculture, which accounts for 25 to 30 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions (second only to the energy sector), is finally playing a starring role at the conference thanks to the treaty’s formal recognition of the critical interplay between agricultural expansion, deforestation and climate change.

“Today, we must provide the necessary resources to support [climate] adaptation and encourage agriculture because it is one of the solutions to environmental problems,” said Jonathan Pershing, U.S. special envoy for climate change.


Pershing’s statement is a harbinger that the innovative sustainability solutions advanced by the Rainforest Alliance and the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) for 30 years are finding more widespread acceptance in the agricultural sector. The ambitious agricultural agenda of the COP22 is in fact well aligned with our decades of transformative work in agriculture, including the development of an effective and dynamic sustainability standard (the SAN Standard), the training of more than 1.4 million farmers in vulnerable landscapes around the world and the building of sustainable commodity supply chains through our certification system. As we are intimately acquainted with the nuts and bolts of this work, we also appreciate the reality check given by Pershing about the resources that will be required to support the world’s 570 million farmers on their journey to long-term sustainability.

Although the outcome of the U.S. presidential election brings some uncertainty to these efforts, it is heartening to note that nine out of 10 countries that have ratified the Paris agreement have included agriculture in their climate action plans. This is both an important commitment by world leaders and a rousing call to action for organizations such as ours.

One of the biggest and most complex questions is how to scale up sustainable agriculture while addressing challenges specific to various regions and crops. That’s why “continuous improvement” is a fundamental feature of the SAN standard, used to audit Rainforest Alliance Certified farms. The SAN system is designed to bring farms in and move them up the ladder of sustainability in ways responsive to more localized challenges.


When Platanera Río Sixaola earned Rainforest Alliance certification in 1993, it was a milestone in sustainable agriculture (the banana farm remains certified to this day). Today, it is one of more than 1.2 million Rainforest Alliance certified farms in 45 countries that grow over 100 crops.

“The Global Climate Action Agenda for COP22 called agriculture ‘the greatest opportunity… unrivaled in its potential to simultaneously address poverty, hunger and climate change.”

The Rainforest Alliance and the SAN are working diligently to bring all of these farms in line with the 2017 SAN Standard, which becomes binding in July. An important facet of this mammoth undertaking is a strengthened “continuous improvement” framework that measures performance levels throughout certification cycles. Farms must demonstrate continuous improvement over the years and reach the highest level of performance by the sixth year.

In recognition of several high-priority conservation and human rights goals, the 2017 SAN standard still includes “critical criteria” that all certified farms must follow from the outset. These critical criteria emphasize essential issues that need to be addressed first in the farm’s sustainability journey, strengthening the capacity of farmers to manage their operations, mitigate risks to workers and nearby communities, practice farming methods designed to eliminate deforestation and build climate resilience.

Climate Smart Agriculture

Climate smart agriculture (PDF) (CSA) is a system of methods that make farms more productive and resilient in the face of climate change, while reducing their climate impacts. The 2017 SAN Standard is the first certification scheme to integrate the principles of climate-smart agriculture into its basic framework.

In the 2017 SAN Standard, farms are required to conduct ongoing climate risk assessments and formulate action plans to address specific climate threats. Different farms have different risk factors, and the farmers themselves are best placed to understand and address their specific challenges. The key is for farms to proactively build locally appropriate climate resilience practices into their management.

Action plans will vary by region but could include planting more diverse crops; planting trees to absorb GHG emissions; better soil management to improve the retention of water, organic fertilizer and carbon; and reducing chemical pesticides. The widespread adoption of CSA, beginning with the over 8.6 million acres already covered by Rainforest Alliance certification, has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions caused by farming. They also can help farms weather climate disruptions that otherwise might put them out of operation.

Reducing pesticides and protecting pollinators

The 2017 SAN Standard includes the most rigorous framework yet for the implementation of integrated pest management methods and restrictions on the use of chemical substances. It prohibits 150 chemical substances classified by the U.N. World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization as “highly hazardous,” including widely used pesticides such as atrazine, and institutes strict safety measures governing the use of 170 other high-risk substances. These requirements are designed to reduce chemical use over time while minimizing risks to human health, wildlife, aquatic ecosystems and pollinator species that facilitate the cultivation of three-quarters of the world’s leading food crops.

Although the 2017 SAN Standard prohibits pesticides in the “neonicotinoid” class, known to harm pollinator species, the plan for implementation illustrates the complex considerations in advancing sustainable agriculture. Neonics are used widely in the tropics, sometimes subsidized by governments, and they are often seen as the only viable pesticide option for smallholder farmers. Banning them overnight would mean financial ruin for nearly 1.3 million farmers in the Rainforest Alliance/SAN system.

“The key is for farms to proactively build locally appropriate climate resilience practices into their management.”


To balance the welfare of farmers with the goal of eliminating the use of these dangerous substances, the 2017 SAN Standard gives farmers three years to phase them out. In the meantime, they are temporarily permitted on farms where there is no viable alternative and must applied in ways that minimize risks for people and pollinator species. By July 2020, no certified farms can use these chemicals.

Protecting native ecosystems

Hundreds of companies around the world have pledged to fight climate change by eliminating deforestation from their supply chains. The 2017 SAN Standard offers one of the strongest frameworks for doing so by requiring Rainforest Alliance Certified farms to protect forests, as well as biodiversity-rich non-forest ecosystems such as grasslands, from agricultural expansion. In fact, to be eligible for Rainforest Alliance certification, farms cannot have converted natural forests to grazing or cropland for at least five years.

Safeguarding worker rights

Recognizing the vital role workers play in long-term sustainability, the 2017 SAN Standard incorporates stricter mandatory requirements and a strong continuous improvement framework governing human rights, worker housing, sanitation, safety, gender and child labor protections, and living wage considerations.

Although on-site inspections of certified farms happen annually, labor issues require continuous attention. The 2017 SAN Standard requires farms to provide effective channels for workers to air complaints and grievances and get them resolved quickly. In the interest of transparency, summaries of any farm certification process will be posted on the SAN website, to further support the engagement of workers and their organizations, as well as other actors.


The issue of a living wage is one of the most challenging considerations of any sustainability standard, given the sheer variability of economic development, the rule of law in producer countries and international supply chain dynamics.

The 2017 SAN Standard requires farms to demonstrate progress toward the provision of living wages, using a “basic-needs approach” that combines critical and continuous improvement criteria with planning processes for living wage payments led by the certified operation. Workers on certified farms must receive no less than the legal minimum wage of the applicable laws of the country, but the final goal is to ensure that farms pay a living wage. The Rainforest Alliance and the SAN are members of the Global Living Wage Coalition, a group of leading standards systems that have been working together to better define and achieve progress toward living wage in different supply chains.

The greatest opportunity

Climate change, the greatest global crisis in human history, calls upon people at every level of society to fight unprecedented environmental destruction and human suffering. Indeed, we can only address this crisis effectively if we do so together, with every single tool at our disposal, from bold international policy decisions to everyday actions by people around the world.

The Global Climate Action Agenda for COP22 called (PDF) agriculture “the greatest opportunity… unrivaled in its potential to simultaneously address poverty, hunger and climate change.” Realizing that potential will require taking sustainable agriculture to a global scale, transforming the way crops are grown on hundreds of millions of farms, from the largest plantations to the tiniest smallholder plots. The 2017 SAN Standard provides the kind of dynamic, inclusive and comprehensive accountability framework we’ll need to get there.

The Rainforest Alliance Responds to New Report on Working Conditions on Tea Farms in India

The Rainforest Alliance Responds to New Report on Working Conditions on Tea Farms in India

The Rainforest Alliance acknowledges the recent report by the India Committee of the Netherlands (ICN) on working conditions on tea estates in India currently certified by the Rainforest Alliance in accordance with the standards set forth by the Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN).

Many of the report’s recommendations are built into the existing SAN standard—however we welcome the findings of the paper published on 30 August 2016, A Cup Half Empty and appreciate the ICN’s efforts to highlight the deeply rooted and systematic issues that are prevalent in the tea sector.

We will take these recommendations into consideration as we continue our ongoing commitment to continuous improvement and look forward to working with the ICN and the industry as a whole towards better social and environmental outcomes in the Indian tea sector.

Further inquiries can be sent to comms@ra.org

Statement in response to Oxfam-DE report “Sweet fruit, bitter truth.”

Statement in response to Oxfam-DE report “Sweet fruit, bitter truth.”

The Rainforest Alliance and Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) take the allegations contained in the Oxfam-DE report,Sweet fruit, bitter truth, very seriously. We share the objectives of Oxfam-DE in helping people to overcome poverty through their own efforts, supported by consumers making informed decisions when they shop.

Meeting the challenges of environmental protection, workers’ rights, and improved livelihoods are at the core of the missions of the Rainforest Alliance and the SAN.

Many of the points raised by the Oxfam-DE report would be in breach of the critical criteria set out in the latest version of the SAN Standard (adopted September 2015). Therefore, if the investigatory audits commissioned by SAN find evidence to support the claims in Oxfam’s report it would lead to the decertification of the farm or farms in question immediately.

The investigative audits we have done so far have not found supporting evidence, and we cannot corroborate Oxfam’s allegations. Our investigations are ongoing and we are determined to verify if indeed the allegations made by Oxfam-DE are accurate.

We invite Oxfam-DE to join us on the ground to visit the implicated farms, where we can confirm factually their status of performance against the SAN Standard. Should we find that the farms are in breach of the SAN Standard, necessary actions will be taken to improve the situation both at farm level and at the overall SAN/ Rainforest Alliance certification scheme level. We also invite Oxfam-DE to work with us to understand why Oxfam’s findings and the SAN / Rainforest Alliance investigations are resulting in different findings.

As our investigations have yet to find evidence in support of the claims made by Oxfam-DE, we cannot accept Oxfam’s communication about our work and the work of Rainforest Alliance Certified™ farms. It is also important to note the observations from Oxfam are based upon their assessment of compliance against the 2010 SAN Standard, version three, and not version four that has applied to all audits carried out since 1 December 2015.

“The Rainforest Alliance is fully committed to ensuring and improving worker welfare, rights and safety globally,” explained Nigel Sizer, President of the Rainforest Alliance. “We are committed to working as closely as possible with Oxfam-DE and others and will continue to play our part in creating the conditions and delivering solutions that will allow people and the planet to prosper together.”

Andre de Freitas, the Executive Director of the SAN commented, “SAN is fully committed to ensuring that the SAN standard and certification process is rigorously implemented around the world and is based upon the highest quality auditing. We welcome the participation and support of all stakeholders, including consumers, NGOs, governments, farmers, workers, and industry, in working with us to find solutions to serious problems and realize long-term, effective change.”


In late April, Oxfam-DE shared with us a short summary of the findings from its report and SAN immediately put into operation its formal complaints process, commissioning investigatory audits of the farms we received information on. The investigation audits undertaken so far on two farms did not uncover any evidence that supports the findings made by Oxfam-DE (see below).

Oxfam-DE shared only a very limited summary of its findings and did not provide us access to the full report until a couple of days prior to publication. Nor were we contacted by Oxfam-DE during their work in Costa Rica and Ecuador. This limited our ability to investigate Oxfam’s findings as we normally would in response to similar complaints or studies.

The allegations contained in the Oxfam-DE report are based upon interviews with workers. In contrast, the SAN investigations are based upon a multi-pronged approach, one used by other certification initiatives in the ISEAL Alliance (a body committed maintaining the quality of certification programs) as well as many respected ISO auditing systems. This method applies both to claims by management to support compliance and claims the farm is not in compliance with the SAN standard. Both the Rainforest Alliance and SAN believe this is a more robust approach in ensuring auditing and investigations are effective in assessing the performance of farms against the SAN standard and in ensuring continuous improvement on farms (see below).

We have discussed over the past week our findings with Oxfam-DE and stressed our desire to confirm factually the performance of the Rainforest Alliance Certified farms that have been reviewed by their research and for which they have provided details. We will undertake further investigations in the coming weeks as more information is provided. We invite Oxfam-DE to file formal complaints about farms they believe are in violation of the SAN standard and that we have not already investigated. The process for filing a formal complaint is found here: http://san.ag/web/inquiries-and-complaints/.

One of the underlying principles of the SAN standard and the work of the Rainforest Alliance is to advance continuous improvement. As an example of this, we have worked over the past few years on reviewing our SAN/ RA certification scheme and we are about to launch a new and upgraded standard and certification process in September 2016 that will require a stronger compliance level from farmers and will further strengthen how certification audits are undertaken. Many of the problems faced on farms and by workers are systemic in nature. They cannot be solved quickly and cannot be solved by certification and certification standards alone. Bigger issues around workers’ and human rights – including national legislation, local enforcement and governance, and power imbalances in the supply chain – can be addressed only through determined cooperation between local, national, and international actors from civil society, the private sector, and government.

Details of the investigations audits undertaken on the two farms notified to the Rainforest Alliance and SAN in Costa Rica and Ecuador

The approach taken by the SAN investigations consisted of three elements:

  1. A review of the previous audit reports for the farms on which we received Oxfam DE summary of findings;
  2. On-site audit including:
    1. Group and individual interviews with workers that took place without management and supervisory staff present;
    2. Interviews with farm management, document review at the farm, observations of field practices and working conditions;
    3. Document reviews typically include payroll records, pay slips, identifications and legal status, social security subscriptions, et al;
    4. Pesticide applications documentation is reviewed and workers are interviewed regarding safety practices; this is cross referenced with physical checks on the pesticide stores and field observations;
    5. Health and safety risk analysis is reviewed; and
  3. Record checks with local government, or local offices of national government (e.g. the Labour Ministry) where appropriate.

The allegations contained in the Oxfam-DE report focus on pineapple production in Costa Rica and banana production in Ecuador. Investigations have been carried out in both countries by fully qualified auditors from SAN accredited certifiers.

Costa Rica

  • In Costa Rica the audit team included an experienced auditor who is an occupational health and safety expert and labour lawyer. The investigation concluded that Oxfam-DE’s claims about worker safety, wages that are less than the minimum wage, and undocumented workers were unfounded. This was verified in the documentation at the Labour Ministry. All interviewed workers reported receiving all of their benefits and at least minimum wage, including upwards adjustment for piece rate workers if quotas cannot be made.
  • All migrant workers checked met all of the legal requirements for working in Costa Rica. Many indicated that the farm(s) helped them obtain their legal residency and/or work permits. Workers said that they signed work contracts and copies were found in the farm documentation.
  • There was no evidence of prohibited pesticide use either in application records or in storerooms. Interviews and application records indicated that safety measures are taken to avoid worker presence in the field (work programming, coloured flags on spray booms, and communication with supervisors via cell phone or radio if workers are seen in areas where applications are supposed to take place). Workers said that they received all of the necessary training and personal protective equipment and demonstrated knowledge of safety practices.
  • Workers also stated that nobody has prohibited them from joining any group or organization they want to.
  • The audit did find isolated incidences where the legal work week of 60 hours during peak periods had been exceeded. This was detected during the last annual audit as well as by the Labour Ministry inspection that took place earlier in 2016. The farms concerned are seeking solutions and the Labour Ministry will carry out a follow up verification.


  • The audit in Ecuador was carried out by an experienced auditor with support from a practicing lawyer. The audit team reviewed payroll documentation, including pay receipts signed by the workers, and interviewed field and packing plant workers.
  • The evidence compiled indicated that workers received at least the minimum wage, benefits required by Ecuadorian laws, and that working hours and overtime were within legally established limits. Workers have written employment contracts on file. The investigatory audit found no evidence of wage discrimination as reported by Oxfam-DE.
  • The farm has posted its policy on freedom of association in areas accessible to workers. Interviewed workers reported that they knew of their right to organize and join unions, and that they were not dissuaded from joining a union. There was no evidence that workers were dismissed for union or worker organization activities.
  • There was evidence of a legally formed and registered occupational health and safety committee, with worker participation. There are up-to-date records of medical exams for workers according to the risks that they are exposed to. A physician was employed by the farm until his departure in April; the farm is in the process of contracting another. Workers do not have to pay for medical services provided by the farm.
  • Weaknesses were found in the system used by the farm to alert workers about the aerial spraying of the plantation. This could result in work that is programmed to take place in some areas that might coincide with spraying. The farm has been informed of this issue and will work to improve the warning system.

Are sustainable farming certifications making a difference?

Are sustainable farming certifications making a difference?

By Ana Paula Tavares and Andre de Freitas

Originally published in GreenBiz

Independent, third-party certification has grown phenomenally since 1993, when the Rainforest Alliance certified the first banana plantation to meet Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) standards.

The standards prohibit conversion of forests or other natural ecosystems to cropland, protect workers and wildlife, regulate the use of chemicals and other farming practices. Today they cover more than a million farmers on Rainforest Alliance Certified farms, most of them smallholders, cultivating 100 crops on a total of 7.4 million acres (about the size of Switzerland) across 42 countries.

It’s not hyperbole to say certification has transformed the way many crops are grown in the tropics. But it’s not a panacea, nor was it intended to be. As it scales up, certification amasses an impressive list of positive impacts, but problems and practices it has not yet transformed are also thrown into sharper relief.


Recently, SAN and the Rainforest Alliance released their Impacts Report, the first of its kind, assessing certification’s impacts over the past five years. It documents how certified farms adopt sustainable practices quickly, and keep improving over time. They increase yields using sustainable methods on existing cropland, improving product quality as well as productivity. Certified farms have higher incomes, better-educated children, less deforestation, more trees and biodiversity, more climate resilience, healthier soil, water and other ecosystems.

For example, certified cocoa farms in Côte d’Ivoire and certified coffee farms in Peru yielded 1.5 to 2 times as much per acre as non-certified farms, and had higher net incomes (291 percent higher in Côte d’Ivoire).

In El Salvador, certified farms not only had greater biodiversity in terms of migratory bird species than non-certified farms, they had about the same number of species with the same survivability rates as natural forest. In Kenya, when a certified tea farm restored native plants along a dry riverbed, the water returned, literally bringing the river back to life.

But the report also found persistent problem areas, such as managing agricultural chemicals and waste or providing adequate worker housing for certain crops in certain regions. It showed that when certified farms failed to conform to a specific requirement in the SAN standard, they corrected the problem most of the time (on tea farms in East Africa corrected 83 percent; cocoa farms in West Africa, 64 percent; coffee farms in Central America, 57 percent; banana farms in Central America, 82 percent).

Why not 100 percent, and why are there non-conformities at all? Certification never can deliver perfection. It’s a system of checks and balances that rewards improved practices while identifying and correcting unsustainable ones. As it expands globally, it improves more farms, but inevitably confronts more instances of bad practices that take time to eradicate.


Some arise from deep-seated, endemic conditions, such as widespread poverty and a tradition of child labor on small family cocoa farms in West Africa. Others may have to do with lack of money or credit access to make improvements.

By design, certification is an iterative process, taking producers on a long-haul journey to continually improve practices. So the SAN standard is continually revised. Late last year, for example, it strengthened requirements for worker training and safety, grievance mechanisms and combatting child labor.

The entire SAN standard gets overhauled and reissued periodically, with a new and improved version launching later this year. It will be more outcomes-based, focus more on key social and environmental requirements and help farmers prioritize improvements.

SAN also will change the audit and verification process, using risk analysis to target oversight where it’s most needed, and new technologies such as satellite imagery to provide better data and lower costs. That will improve compliance on existing certified farms and lower barriers to entry for more farms.

Today farms that are Rainforest Alliance Certified as meeting SAN standards produce over 15 percent of the world’s tea, 13.6 percent of cocoa and over 5 percent of coffee and bananas. But what about the rest of the world’s agricultural land? 3.7 billion acres are under cultivation globally plus 1.2 billion acres of degraded agricultural land, much of it totally abandoned, that might be restored to fertility. That’s least two orders of magnitude bigger than the total land area covered by certified agriculture.

Clearly, certification alone won’t be enough to bring all that land into sustainable production. It’s a valuable tool; it proves we can raise yields on existing cropland using sustainable methods, which is what we need to do to meet rising food demand and feed 9 billion people by midcentury without cannibalizing forests or other ecosystems. But to move the whole agricultural sector towards sustainability, certification and the principles that underpin it must be integrated with other approaches.

Those other approaches include companies pursuing internal sourcing commitments and supply chain auditing, which help them manage supplier risk, improve supplier practices, and demonstrate the value proposition of investing in sustainability.

Chiquita, for example, worked with Rainforest Alliance to improve practices on supplier farms, investing $20 million over nine years. It paid for itself many times over by saving Chiquita about $9 million annually in reduced pesticide use and pallet recycling, and by regaining over $200 million worth of lost business.

But corporate supply chain audits also have limitations, and won’t be sufficient to globalize sustainable practices. Corporate supply chain audits tend to prioritize addressing environmental problems at the expense of labor problems, and to reduce the role of government in favor of corporate self-policing.

Ramping up government regulation, inspection and extension and training programs remains a big piece of the larger sustainable agriculture puzzle. Certification isn’t a substitute for government engagement; the two should reinforce each other. Ideally, best practices defined by certification should influence government policies and programs, government extension workers should be trained in best practices, and help spread them.

The Rainforest Alliance and SAN members work with national and regional governments in producer countries, connecting them with local certification efforts, and with local banking, finance and insurers. Together they can come up with training programs and incentives to lower barriers and costs, help smallholders access credit and funding, and promote sustainable practices. But we need more ways to engage governments.


We also need to take an integral, whole-landscape view of sustainability, beyond individual farms or groups of farms, which don’t exist in a vacuum. For communities and livelihoods to be sustainable, they need to be part of a viable web of sustainably managed farms, waterways, forests and other ecosystems.

None of these approaches magically will eliminate unsustainable practices on billions of acres of farmland worldwide. But that shouldn’t deter us from using the tools we have to tackle even the toughest, most problematic areas of agriculture, and working to put the whole sector on a sustainable trajectory.

After all, this isn’t a game or laboratory experiment we can confine to areas with conducive conditions. Agriculture is the most impactful human activity on the planet, bar none.

We don’t have the luxury of narrowing sustainability imperatives to conform to the conveniences or limitations of businesses, governments or even certification regimes. We have to come together to transcend them, and make global agriculture conform to the non-negotiable limits of sustainability set by the planet.

SAN’s Director will share his expertise on the General Assembly of the Tropical Forest Alliance 2020

SAN’s Director will share his expertise on the General Assembly of the Tropical Forest Alliance 2020

Over 80 partners of The Tropical Forest Alliance 2020 (TFA 2020) from government, business, civil society, international organizations and local communities will come together to finalise the 2016-18 strategy of TFA 2020, and exchange knowledge, expertise, and best practices on partnering to implement the transition to deforestation-free supply chains.

The TFA 2020 is a global public-private partnership in which partners take voluntary actions, individually and in combination, to reduce the tropical deforestation associated with the sourcing of commodities such as palm oil, soy, beef, and paper and pulp.

Tropical Forest Alliance 2020 Deforestation Climate Change

During the Knowledge Exchange Sessions, the Executive Director of SAN, Andre de Freitas, alongside Richard Donovan (from SAN member Rainforest Alliance) and Mauricio Voivodic (from SAN member in Brasil, Imaflora), will present recently completed research on the impacts of certification from a deforestation and sustainability perspective, and also identify how certification systems are currently adapting to better address new challenges.

The presenters have long experience in on the-ground advisory and independent auditing in forestry and agriculture certification. They have also been involved in corporate and government efforts to halt deforestation.

“TFA 2020 is the leading global public-private partnership working to eliminate deforestation from key commodity supply chains. Its upcoming General Assembly will produce its strategy for the next few years and we are excited to contribute to this and share our experience and positive results on how SAN/Rainforest Alliance certification has not only been effective in tackling deforestation but also in delivering other environmental and social benefits”, said de Freitas.

The Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN) is partner with the TFA 2020 since last year, since then the SAN has been involved in programs and initiatives to end commodity driven tropical deforestation and has share its knowledge and expertise with other partners.

Also, on the SAN Standard it’s stated that from the date of application for certification onwards, the farm must not destroy any natural ecosystem. Additionally, from November 1, 2005 onwards no high value ecosystems must have been destroyed by or due to purposeful farm management activities.

The Knowledge Sessions will also include discussions about topics such as the importance of land and forest tenure in achieving zero deforestation and sustainable supply chain management goals.

The TFA 2020 will be held in Jakarta, Indonesia on 10-11 March.